Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using beet extract

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Latest research published in the journal Scientists progress revealed that microbes in various hospitals and textile products are a major cause of death.

Study: Surface modification of textiles by green nanotechnology against pathogenic microorganisms. Image Credit: AMV_80 / Shutterstock

Research by Mr. Otávio Augusto and his team has shown that the manufacture of antimicrobial textiles for hospitals would be beneficial for the elimination of these bacteria and fungi.

The green process of synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is very beneficial for hospital cotton fabrics.

Beta vulgaris extract has been used effectively to make such smart, germ-killing textiles that could be used in hospitals for sheets and pillows to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases through contact.

Diagram of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts.

Diagram of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plant extracts. Image Credit: dos Santos, OL Science Advances

Silver nanoparticles

The silver nanoparticles used for this study were at the scale of 1 to 100 nm. They are synthesized in a reaction medium useful for the generation of a stable nucleus.

The step called growth forms larger particles, and the deep modification of the stabilizing components is responsible for particles of different sizes and shapes. Since the chemical and physical processes are expensive and use toxic compounds, the synthesis and use of nanoparticles becomes a great difficulty. Therefore, green synthesis is the only viable option.

Methods and materials incorporated in green nanotechnology

The synthesis of green nanotechnology used in this study is mediated by plant extracts, cell extracts, algae, and other biomolecules. Plant extracts are highly regarded for their cheap and efficient processes. The ionic decomposition in the liquid system of a metallic substrate is the process of sustainable development of AgNP nanoparticles. Silver ions are reduced to silver and a nucleation process is initiated. This is essential for the stabilization of nanoparticles.

Beta vulgaris beet has been used effectively. It was cut into pieces 2-3 cm long and heated until boiling. The solution extracts were filtered and stored at low temperature around 4 ° C. The synthesis of the Ag nanoparticles was carried out in the exact proportions of 1:50, 1:25, 1:10, 1: 5 and 1: 2.

The essential stability analysis was performed in the latest research using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer followed by X-ray spectroscopic analysis by the energy dispersive process. Characterization is the next essential step defined in the study, and the TESCAN VEGA3 electron microscope operated at 200 kV for the efficient completion of this process. This was followed by the analysis of the Zeta potential using a stable aqueous dispersion of silver nanoparticles.

The last step involves the validation of the antimicrobial properties using an antimicrobial test, disk diffusion, liquid growth inhibition and the MTT test. All the related processes and steps were mentioned in the research, providing an overview of the pros and cons of the new concept.

SEM observation of AgNPs in sample (A) 1: 2, (B) 1: 5, (C) 1:10, (D) 1:25 and (E) 1:50 dispersed in the gauze fibers.

SEM observation of AgNPs in sample (A) 1: 2, (B) 1: 5, (C) 1:10, (D) 1:25 and (E) 1:50 dispersed in the gauze fibers. Image Credit: dos Santos, OL Science Advances

The latest discoveries in green nanotechnology

The latest study showed that the nano extracts had a color change from red-violet to a reddish-brown and grayish-brown color. US-Siv spectrophotometry confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles.

Samples 1: 2, 1: 5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50 showed typical spectra of AgNPs with the maximum obtained at 442 nm, 429 nm, 439 nm, 449 nm and 431 nm, respectively . This is the proof of a synthesis of stabilized silver nanoparticles with sizes varying from 35 to 80 nm.

Dispersion in hospital and medical textiles has been observed via the process of scanning electron microscopy. Sedimentation of these particles on the surface of the textile components has been observed. This process has also been implemented for hospital gauze fibers. Two-layered fibers were observed and images were taken for further analysis.

This revealed that the 1: 5 and 1:10 particles had a greater number of nanoparticles in their respective sample. The smaller particles in the 1:25 and 1:50 samples were responsible for their reduced reactivity. Transmission electron microscopy was a crucial step in identifying the spherical shape of particles smaller than 100 nm.

This study tested hospital textiles impregnated with AgNPs against different microorganisms. Samples 1: 2, 1: 5, 1:10 were effective against all microbes while 1:25 and 1:50 were found to be ineffective. The results also validated the lower sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it is verified that silver nanoparticles affect various cellular chemical processes and are effective against resilient microbes.

TEM of AgNPs in samples (A) 1: 2, (B) 1: 5, (C) 1:10, (D) 1:25 and (E) 1:50.

TEM of AgNPs in samples (A) 1: 2, (B) 1: 5, (C) 1:10, (D) 1:25 and (E) 1:50. Image Credit: dos Santos, OL Science Advances

Industry overview and limits

The incorporation of silver nanoparticles for green synthesis has proven to be beneficial and effective, leading to rapid implementation of this technology in various healthcare hospitals and essentially in all industries where clean and germ-free components , especially textiles, are a necessity.

However, some limitations were also noted, such as the complexity of the plant extracts and their reduction as well as the variation of the components. This study is centered on a single extract of beetroot; the results would be different from other extracts. However, the effectiveness of the process cannot be denied due to these few factors.

In short, this new technique of Scientists progress has truly revolutionized the use of healthcare textiles, and the implementation of nanoparticles has proven to be beneficial not only for microbial suppression, but also for the environmentally friendly and environmentally friendly synthesis process.

The references:

dos Santos, OL, Araujo, I. d., Silva, F. d., Sales, MN, Christoffolet, MA, & Backx, BP (2021). Surface modification of textiles by green nanotechnology against pathogenic microorganisms. Scientists progress, 21. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666086521001533

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